cartridges

A phono cartridge consists of the cantilever (a tubular arm) and stylus tip (or needle) which vibrates as it traces the record grooves.  The cartridge converts the vibrations into audio signals which are then amplified further up the electronic chain. Moving coil types require additional amplification - and the highest sound quality.

Criteria such as tonal balance, response range, clarity on musical peaks, stereo separation, imaging, and freedom from noise and distortion are all affected here at the source.